• Read guide to authors before submitting your manuscript

The Mbeya University of Science and Technology (MUST) Journal of Research and Development (MJRD) is a peer reviewed, open access, inter- and multidisciplinary journal that is dedicated to expanding access to research, increasing research and scientific collaboration, and building academic research capacity in Africa. The journal aims to provide a highly-visible platform for publishing research and welcomes submissions of articles from the fields of Engineering and Technology, Science, Social Sciences, Humanities and Business. The MJRD provides rapid biannual publication of free access online journal articles. Therefore, authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge for each article accepted for publication
1.1 Specific Objectives
Articles published by MJRD follow timely rigorous peer review process. These Guidelines aim at achieving the following specific objectives:
(i) To support fair and timely peer review process with valuable inputs from responsible Editors and Reviewers
(ii) To adhere to the guidelines and procedures designed to ensure fair and best practice followed by
(iii) To make constructive recommendations for improving the overall process along with better
production support and global dissemination of the information published in the Journal
(iv) To encourage and motivate scientific valuable researched information by striving towards
professional peer review and timely publication
(i) As a member of Publisher International Linking Association, MJRD follow the Creative Commons
Attribution License and Scholars Open Access publishing policies.
(i) Author is accountable for the presented data and information in their respective article along with taking the responsibility of the significance
(ii) Author must present genuine original outcome of their research, and an appropriate and relevant
citation while representing the data and documenting the discussion
(iii) Author should provide information which is comprehensible and reproducible. Supporting information such as figures and tables provided by the authors should be of high quality, legible and must be reproducible technically
(iv) Author should not repeat any previous research data from themselves or anyone else while submitting an original manuscript for a primary publication in any of the journal
(v) The reported scope of work should be based on proper citation from the other publications
(vi) Before submitting any article, authors should check the scope of the journal and in case of any
query they should contact the Editorial office
(vii) Authors must strictly adhere to the authorship criteria. All listed authors must have made a
significant contribution to the research presented in the manuscript and approved all its claims
(viii) Any person to be considered as an author of an original research article must have contributed
in any of the following ways: designed the study, executed the study or conducted the experiments, have taken part in analyzing the data, supported in documenting the article and drawing the conclusion, spearheaded the project as a principal investigator. It is mandatory to include everyone who has made a significant contribution towards the completion of the research work under consideration
(ix) Any financial or personal interest that governs the findings or research in the manuscript along with the details of financial support and its sources should be revealed. Through the submission of an article, the respective author agrees that the article is neither under consideration nor published in any other journal.
(x) Author (s) should include a Conflict of Interest statement in the main manuscript file and appears
before the reference listing
(xi) Pages should be numbered consecutively
(xii) Lines should be numbered consecutively. All line numbers should be provided on the left margin
of the page, and each line must be numbered. Please number all pages continuously and do not restart the line numbering on each page. You can add line numbers in Microsoft Word by following these steps; click on “File”, select “Page setup”, select the “Layout” tab, click on the “Line Numbering” button, check the “Add Line Numbering” box, and select “Continuous”
(xiii) Lines spacing should be 1.5
(xiv) Author is highly encouraged to suggest three potential reviewers who are experts in the field and provide reviewer’s full name and current functioning email addresses for each
(xv) Avoid plagiarism. All submitted manuscript will be screened for authenticity, if proof of plagiarism
is found, the manuscript will be rejected immediately
(xvi) It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format.
MJRD welcomes submission of manuscripts from the fields of Engineering and Technology, Science,
Social Sciences, Humanities and Business that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific
excellence. Papers will be published approximately six weeks after submission. The Author should submit manuscript to MJRD via https://mjrd.must.ac.tz/index.php/mjrd or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at MJRD through mjrdmust@gmail.com. A manuscript number will be e-mailed to the corresponding author within 72 hours after submission for further correspondence. MJRD will post the published version of articles immediately after publication on its website. However, in order to avoid delays, authors should assure that the level, length and format of a manuscript submission conform to MJRD’s guidelines at the submission and each revision stage. Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously, and it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Please note: Editable files are required for processing in production.
4.1. Reviewers
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of three or more several potential reviewers. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
4.2 Types of Articles
MJRD accepts the following types of articles: Original research papers, Review articles, and Short communication.
Research papers - original full-length research papers that have not been published previously, except
in a preliminary form, and should not exceed 7,500 words from introduction to conclusion (not including references) (including no more than six tables and figures combined - additional tables and figures can be submitted as supplementary material). Research papers should not contain more than 40 references.
Review articles - will be accepted in areas of topical interest, will normally focus on literature published
over the previous five years, and should not exceed 10,000 words from introduction to conclusion (not
including references) (including allowance for no more than six tables and figures combined). Review
articles should not contain more than 120 references. If it is felt absolutely necessary to exceed these
numbers (tables, figures, references), please contact the editorial office for advice before submission.
Short communications - Short communications of up to 3000 words from introduction to conclusion
(not including references), describing work that may be of a preliminary nature but merits publication.
These papers should not contain more than 40 references.
4.3. Submission checklist
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details. Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
 E-mail address
 Full postal address
 Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
Supplemental files (where applicable)
Further considerations:
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
4.4 Cover Letter
All submissions should be accompanied by a cover letter briefly stating the significance of the research,
agreement of authors for publication, number of figures and tables, supporting manuscripts and any
supplementary information. Also, current e-mail address of corresponding author should be included
to maintain communication. Within the cover letter author should suggest three potential reviewers with their full contact address including current email.

4.5 Article Preparation Format
4.5.1 Manuscript Title
The title should be limited to 25 words or less and should not contain abbreviations. The title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper.
4.5.2 Author Information
Complete names and affiliation of all authors, including contact details of corresponding author (Telephone, Fax and E-mail address).
4.5.3 Abstract
The abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state
the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions.
The abstract should summarize the manuscript content in 300 words or less. Standard nomenclature
should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. The preferable format should accommodate a
description of the study background, methods, results and conclusion. Following the abstract, a list of
keywords (3-5) and abbreviations should be included. Avoid citing sources in your abstract.
4.5.4 Text
Introduction: The introduction should set the tone of the paper by providing a clear statement of the
study, the relevant literature on the study subject and the proposed approach or solution. The introduction should be general but focused enough to attract a reader’s attention from a broad range
of scientific disciplines.
Materials and Methods: This section should provide a complete overview of the design of the study.
Detailed descriptions of materials or participants, comparisons, interventions and types of analysis
should be mentioned. However, only new procedures should be described in detail; previously
published procedures should be cited and important modifications of published procedures should be
mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address.
Results and Discussion: The results section should provide complete details of the experiment/
analysis that are required to support the conclusion of the study. The results should be written in the
past tense when describing the research findings, experiments or analysis. Previously published
findings should be written in the present tense. Results and discussion should be combined.
Speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the results but discussed.
Tables: These should be used at a minimum and designed as simple as possible. We strongly
encourage authors to submit tables as a separate document. Tables are to be typed single-spaced
throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered
and cited in the text in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, Table 2 etc.). And should be
supplied with a heading and a legend. Table titles (max 15 words) should be included above the table,
and legends (max 300 words) should be included underneath the table. Tables should not be
embedded as figures or spreadsheet files, but should be formatted using 'Table object' function in
your word processing program.
Figures: The preferred file formats for photographic images as JPEG. If you have created images with
separate components on different layers, you should send the Photoshop files. All images must be at
or above intended display size, with the following image resolutions: Line Art 800 dpi, Combination (Line Art + Halftone) 600 dpi, Halftone 300 dpi. Image files must also be cropped as close to the actual
image as possible. Figures should be cited as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, etc. in the manuscript.
This section includes acknowledgment of people, grant details, funds, etc. Organise
acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not,
therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List all individuals
who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof
reading the article, etc.).
Funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the Mbeya University of Science and Technology [grant numbers
yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; Tanzania Wildlife
Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania [grant number aaaa], and COSTECH [grant number bbbb].
If no funding has been provided for the project or research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-forprofit sectors.
Only published research articles should be included in the reference list. Unpublished abstracts,
unpublished data and personal communications should neither be cited nor included in the reference
list. All personal communications should be supported by a letter from the relevant authors. Obtaining
consent to quote personal communications and unpublished data from the cited colleagues is the
responsibility of the author. MJRD uses Harvard Referencing style which follows the following format:
Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s). For example:
(i) Reference List Citations for a Book with One Author
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first
edition), City published: Publisher, Page(s).
For example; one author and first edition:
Msambichaka, J. (2005). Bridge Construction Models. University of Dar es Salaam press: 250 pages
(ii) Reference List Citations for a Book with Two or More Authors
When creating a citation that has more than one author, place the names in the order in which they
appear on the source. Use the word “and” to separate the names.
Last name, First initial “and” Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s). For
Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering computers.
Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.
(iii) Reference List Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format:
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In: First initial. Last name, ed., Book Title, 1st
ed.* City: Publisher, Page(s). For example;
Bressler, L. (2010). My girl, Kylie. In: L. Matheson, ed., The Dogs That We Love, 1st ed. Boston: Jacobson
Ltd., pp. 78-92.
(iv) Reference List Citations for Multiple Works By The Same Author
When there are multiple works by the same author, place the citations in order by year. When sources
are published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title. For example;
Brown, D. (2003a). Deception point. New York: Atria Books, pages.
Brown, D. (2003b). The Da Vinci code. New York: Doubleday, pages.
(v) Reference List Citations for Print Journal Articles
The standard structure of a print journal citation includes the following components:
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s). For example;
Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. (2015). The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income
in Community Dwelling Adults with Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. Global Journal of Health
Science, 7(5), pp. 183-195.
(vi) Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website
When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components
found in a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium ([online]), the website URL, and the
date that the article was accessed.
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online], Volume (Issue), pages. Available
at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. For example;
Mtui, G. (2015). Establishing Correlation between Genetics and Nonresponse. Journal of Postgraduate
Medicine, [online] 61(2), p. 148. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuestResearch-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2019].
(vii) Reference List Citations for Print Newspaper Articles
When citing a newspaper, use the following structure: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article
title. Newspaper, Page(s). For example;
Weisman, J. (2015). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York
Times, p.A1.
(viii)Reference List Citations for Websites
When citing a website, use the following structure: Last name, first initial (Year published). Page title.
[Online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. For example;
Mms.com, (2015). M&M'S Official Website. [Online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed
20 Apr. 2015].
(ix) Reference List Citations for eBooks and PDFs

When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the first edition, and follow it with the
type of resource in brackets (either [eBook] or [pdf]). Include the URL at the end of the citation with
the date it was accessed in brackets.
Use the following structure:
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. [Format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at:
URL [Accessed Day Month, Year]. For example;
Zusack, M. (2015). The Book Thief. 1st ed. [eBook] New York: Knopf. Available at:
http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].
(x) Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings
Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the
purpose of a meeting or conference. Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding.
If published online:
Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of
Conference. [Online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo.
If not published online:
Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of
Conference. City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. For example;
Fox, R. (2014). Technological Advances in Banking. In: American Finance Association Northeast
Regional Conference. Hartford: AFA, p. 24.
(xi) Reference List Citations for Court Cases
To cite a court case, use the following format: Case name [Year published] Report abbreviation Volume
number (Name or abbreviation of court); First page of court case. For example;
Young V. United Parcel Service, Inc. [2015]12-1226 (Supreme Court of the United States);
(xii) Reference List Citations for Dissertations
Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation:
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of
University, College, or Institution. For example;
Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing. PhD. Yeshiva
(xiii)Reference List Citations for Print Encyclopedia Articles
Use this format to cite an encyclopedia:
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. In: Encyclopedia title, Edition. City published:
Publisher, page(s). For example;
Harding, E. (2010). Anteaters. In: The International Encyclopedia of Animals, 3rd ed. New York:
Reference World, p 2.
(xiv)Reference List Citations for Government Publications

Use the following format to cite the government publications:
Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article. City
published: Publisher, Page(s). For example;
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2012). Bicycle PA Routes. Harrisburg: PENNDOT, p 1
(xv) Reference List Citations for Reports
When citing a report, use the following format:
Last name, First Initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published). Title. [Online] City published: Publisher,
Pages used. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]. For example;
Certify, (2015). First Quarter, 2015 Business Expense Trends. [Online] Portland: Certify, p.2. Available
at: http://www.certify.com/CertifySpendSmartReport.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
(xvi)In-Text Citations Overview
(i) Use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of the paper that are paraphrased or
quoted directly from a source. Each in-text citation generally displays the last name of the
author and the year the source was published. The in-text citation is usually located at the
end of the quoted or paraphrased sentence. In-Text Citations for One Author
The author’s last name and the year that the source was published are placed in the
For example; “... … he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004).
(ii) In-Text Citations for Two Authors: When a source has two authors, place both authors’
names in the order in which they appear on the source, with the word “and” separating
For example; …………… a strong emotional charge (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011).
(iii) In-Text Citations for Three or more Authors.
Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by “et al.” and the
publishing year. For example;
It can be said that “……………………. of future illness” (Potter et al., 2013).
For example; Potter et al. (2013) explain that ………………………………………….
5.1 General Instructions
All manuscripts must be in English. These guidelines include complete descriptions of the fonts,
spacing, and related information for producing your proceedings manuscripts. Please follow them.
(i) The entire paper should be 15 pages or less. This excludes references
(ii) Use 1.5-line spacing
(iii) Use 2.5 cm margins on all sides
(iv) Use times new roman with 12pt font size
(v) Include line and page numbering
(vi) Page numbers should align to the centre
(vii) Title of the paper should be 25 words or less, aligned to the left
(viii) The paper should include four major sections - Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Material and
Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion and recommendations, and References.

(ix) If info graphics (tables, charts) to be used in the narrative you should also add Appendices as a
separate section at the end of the paper.
(x) Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have
been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as SI does not need to be defined. Do not use
abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.
(xi) Manuscript text should be submitted with line numbers
(xii) Write your text in good English (use either American or British, but not a mixture of these)
(xiii) Scientific names of species should be italicized (e.g. Homo sapiens). The name should be written
out in full when it first appears in the abstract (e.g. Lycopersicon lycopersicum, Lycopersicon
esculentum) and then abbreviated in the rest of the abstract (L. lycopersicum, L. esculentum). The
name is again written out in full when it first appears in a subsequent section of the paper
(typically, the introduction) and is then abbreviated upon further use. Scientific name must
include authority name e.g. Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) H. Karst., Lycopersicon esculentum
Mill. etc.
(xiv) Use equation functions when writing formulae
(xv) Do not use page breaks in your manuscript
(xvi) Submit editable file of your manuscript. Editable files are required for processing in production.
5.1 Article structure
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1
(then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. The abstract is not included in section numbering. Any subsection may
be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line
5.2 Paper title
The article title should not be more than 25 words (1.5 spacing, 12pt, Times New Roman). Title page
information include the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the
names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript Arabic numeral immediately after the
author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each
affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. For
1Name of 1st Author, 2Name of 2nd Author, 3Name of 3rd Author:
1Designation of 1st Author, 1Name of Department of 1st Author, 1Name of organization of 1st Author,
City, Country.
2Designation of 2nd Author, 2Name of Department of 2
nd Author, 2Name of organization of 2
nd Author,
City, Country.
3Designation of 3rd Author. 3Name of Department of 3
rd Author, 1Name of organization of 3
rd Author,
City, Country.
Clearly indicate who is a corresponding author who will handle correspondence at all stages of
refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with
country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal
address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
5.3 Abstract
An abstract should be summarized in one paragraph of 300 words or less, the major aspects of the
entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: (1) the overall purpose of the study and the research problem(s) investigated; (2) the research design of the study; sampling techniques, sample
size, geographical location and instruments for data collection/experiments; and (3) major findings or
trends found as a result of the study, conclusion(s) and recommendation(s) of the study.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 5 Keywords arranged alphabetically and
separated with semicolons (e.g. Biodiversity; Forestry; Soil; Lands). Please avoid general and plural
terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of").
5.4 Introduction
The author should provide an overview of the situation worldwide and narrow it to the focal point of
the purpose of the research and indicate his intention of doing research. A research problem should
be a definite or clear expression [statement] about an area of concern, a condition to be improved
upon, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory,
or within existing practice that points to a need for meaningful understanding and deliberate
5.4 Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods
that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly
from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications
to existing methods should also be described. In general, it should outline the plan and method that
informs the reader how the study was conducted. This includes Universe of the study, sample of the
study, data, study’s variables and analytical framework.
5.5 Results and Discussion
Results should reflect specific objectives and hypotheses or research questions and their
corresponding scientific answers. The discussion should explore the significance of the results of the
work, not repeat them. Interpret findings obtained and suggest possible reasons for and compare
results with other scholarly studies. However, avoid extensive citations and discussion of published
literature. A combined Results and Discussion section is often suitable.
5.6 Conclusion and Recommendations
Make conclusion and recommendations based on key findings obtained for each specific objective. A
conclusion section should be short, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or
Results and discussion section.
5.7 References
List every reference cited in the text in an alphabetical order. Authors are advised to make use of
reference management software or citation/referencing tools such as Mendeley, Zotero, EndNote,
Paperpile, Cite This for Me, Citation Machine, EasyBib, or BibMe to ensure that reference lists are
correctly formatted.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and
equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a
subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly, for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1,